Recognition of others as individuals has long been established in fish and sharks, and is necessary for the complex social lives in which cognition is most evident.
© Ila France Porcher
author of "My Sunset Rendezvous : Crisis in Tahiti"
Bshary R, Wickler W, Fricke H (2002) Fish cognition: a primate's eye view. Animal Cognition (2002) 5 : 1-13
Butler, Ann B. and William Hodos (1996) Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York: Wiley-Liss, 514 pp
Chandroo KP, Yue S, and Mocci RD (2004) An evaluation of current perspectives on consciousness and pain in fishes. Fish and Fisheries 5. 281-295
Gödel, K. 1931 “Über formal unentscheidebarre Sätze der Principia Mathamtica und verwandler System I” Monathshefte für Mathematik und Physik , 38 pp. 173-198
Gruber, S.H. and Myrberg, A.A. 1977. Approaches to Study of Behavior of Sharks. American Zoologist 17, 471-486.
Guttridge, T. L., Myrberg, A. A., Porcher, I. F., Sims, D. W. and Krause, J. (2009), The role of learning in shark behaviour. Fish and Fisheries, 10:450–469.
Kotrschal K, Van Staaden M. J. Huber R. (1998), Fish brains : evolution and environmental relationships. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 8, 373-408
Lovibond PF, Shanks DR (2002) The role of awareness in Pavlovian conditioning: empirical evidence and theoretical implication. Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 3-26
Overmier JB, Hollis KL (1990) Fish in the think tank: learning, memory, and integrated behaviour. Neurobiology of Comparative Cognition (eds Kesner RP, Olson DS), Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsday, NJ. pp. 205-236
Penrose, R, (1990) The Emperor's New Mind. Oxford University Press
Maren S (2001) Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Annual Review of Neuroscience 24. 897-931
Northcutt, RG. 1977. Elasmobranch Central Nervous-System Organization and Its Possible Evolutionary Significance. American Zoologist 17, 411-429.